Ontological, Teleological, and Cosmological Arguments
What are key differences between the ontological, teleological, and cosmological arguments? Identify the philosopher who you think best supports his or her argument.
Ontological arguments rest on the concept of God as proof of existence, cosmological arguments are based on assertions of the first mover and a cause to prove God exists, and teleological arguments provide proof that God exists on the observation that natural things act for an end or purpose.
At first glance, the logical positivist, Antony Flew offers a very compelling concept for how we determine whether assertions about beliefs qualify as acceptable. To use Flews’ example, the believer claimed that there must be an invisible gardener but the skeptic questions the assertion by asking how the believers’ invisible gardener is any different from an imaginary or a nonexistent gardener. To take a real world example, the feeling of regret illustrates Flews’ concept nicely; everyone has made a choice that he or she may somewhat regret; the regret is inspired by evaluating a choice against beliefs that have already proven to have more acceptable consequences than the choice we have made and now come to regret. Though this concept is appealing, it is not the best supported philosophy.
The best supported philosophy is Mary Daly’s “After the Death of God the Father.” It is apparent that the language used to explain God perpetuates the male-dominant stereotype. Referring to God as the father provides the assumption that there is a mother which “he” takes precedence to. Even the story of Adam and Eve blames all man’s sin on Eve for not being able to resist temptation. Daly even predicts that the women’s movement will cause changes in structures, beliefs, symbols, norms, and patterns of behavior. In fact, these changes have affected every aspect she predicted; since Daly’s philosophy is most accurately represented in the real world, I would have to conclude that she has the best supported philosophy. God has been associated with the concepts of “father,” “he,” “him,” and “his” which have directed society to worship a superior being conceived of as male; if “his” existence is superior, then the concept of “him” generalizes to superiority of all males which relate to the concept “he.”